In posterior uveitis, an inflammation of the retina or choroid occurs. Usually no pain is felt and the disease manifests itself mainly by decreased visual acuity, blurred vision, flickering or even blurred vision. Individual clarification must be performed, including imaging procedures as well as laboratory and blood samples, to rule out a possible underlying autoimmune disease or infection. If necessary, fluid should also be taken from the anterior chamber or vitreous body for further clarification of the disease. If necessary, colleagues from infectiology, rheumatology, pneumology, radiology or pediatrics are consulted. If the cause of posterior uveitis is an infection, it is treated specifically with antibiotics or antiviral drugs, depending on the cause. The most common cause of posterior uveitis is a toxoplasmosis infection. If therapy is necessary, it often has to be carried out over a longer period of time. If the cause is found in an underlying autoimmune disease, immunomodulatory therapy is initiated in cooperation with other disciplines. In some cases, however, no underlying cause is found.